Odontodactylus scyllarus, commonly known as the peacock mantis shrimp, harlequin mantis shrimp, painted mantis shrimp, clown mantis shrimp or rainbow mantis shrimp, is a large stomatopod native to the epipelagic seabed across the Indo-Pacific, ranging from Guam to East Africa, and as far South as Northern KwaZulu Natal in South Africa.
In the marine aquarium trade, it is both prized for its attractiveness and considered by others to be a dangerous pest.
O. scyllarus is one of the larger, more colourful mantis shrimps commonly seen, ranging in size from 3–18 cm . They are primarily green with orange legs and leopard-like spots on the anterior carapace.
Their ability to see circularly polarised light has led to studies to determine if the mechanisms by which their eyes operate can be replicated for use in reading CDs and similar optical storage devices.